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NDT for Aerospace

On-site Inspections

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Radiography

Radiography

The radiography technique typically used in aeronautics consists of exposing a film with an X-ray beam. The film, when developed, produces a detailed image...

The radiography technique typically used in aeronautics consists of exposing a film with an X-ray beam. The film, when developed, produces a detailed image in shades of gray (lighter shade for thicker material, darker for thinner). The x-ray allows you to "see" through the part.

 

Benefits :

  • Intuitive interpretation
  • Inspection results with evidence on films
  • Applicable to complex geometries
  • Possible to inspect just about any material

 

To consider :

  • Presents a risk of exposure, requires a security perimeter
  • The inspection is carried out in two stages (exposition, then development and interpretation of the films)
  • Inspection often performed in the evening or at night to limit interference with on-site personnel

 

Certifications : 

  • AMO # 25-10 Radiography (FAA, EASA equivalences)
  • CGSB, radiography, level 2
  • NAS 410, radiography, levels 2 and 3

Eddy currrent

Eddy currrent

The eddy current inspection method is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. A defect in the conductive surface near the probe will have...

The eddy current inspection method is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. A defect in the conductive surface near the probe will have the effect of disrupting the flow of these eddy currents and their magnetic fields, thereby altering the impedance of the coil. The instrument therefore presents the amplitude and impedance phase variations of the probe, caused by discontinuities in the inspected area. This method is used for the detection of surface defects (HFEC) as well as below the surface (LFEC), such as cracks or corrosion, in conductive but non-ferromagnetic materials. It can also be used to measure the conductivity of materials.

 

Benefits :

  • Quick and precise method
  • Very sensitive to surface cracks
  • Effective through painted or coated surfaces
  • Inspection through multiple thin layers
  • Measurement of the conductivity of materials

 

To consider :

  • Not very effective on ferromagnetic materials
  • Only applicable to conductive materials

 

Certifications:

  • AMO # 25-10 Eddy Current (FAA, EASA equivalences)
  • Bombardier approved supplier
  • CGSB, Eddy Current, level 2
  • NAS 410, Eddy current, levels 2 and 3

Ultrasonic Phased-Array

Ultrasonic Phased-Array

The "phased-array" ultrasound technique is an improvement on the conventional ultrasound technique. It generally allows for faster and more precise inspection.

The "phased-array" ultrasound technique is an improvement on the conventional ultrasound technique. It generally allows for faster and more precise inspection. Some specific applications of Boeing, Airbus, Rolls Royce, among others, require the use of multi-element ultrasound. We are highly specialized in this technique and will certainly be able to help you with these tasks.

 

Benefits :

  • More precise characterization and positioning of defects 
  • Possibility to record the results according to the position of the probe, or to map the thicknesses
  • Volumetric inspection, not just on the surface

 

To consider :

  • Requires application of couplant to inspection surfaces
  • Sensitive to irregularities at the contact surface
  • More complex to perform, requires well-trained technicians

 

Certifications :

  • AMO # 25-10 Ultrasound (FAA, EASA equivalents)
  • NAS 410, Ultrasound, levels 2 and 3
  • CGSB, Ultrasound, level 2
  • Rolls Royce specific training in "phased-array"

Thermography

Thermography

The thermographic inspection method uses a camera that detects infra-reds and represents them on the visible color spectrum. This method is generally used...

The thermographic inspection method uses a camera that detects infra-reds and represents them on the visible color spectrum. This method is generally used in aeronautics to detect the presence of water or mold.

 

Benefits :

  • Without contact with the inspected part
  • Rapid coverage of large areas
  • Fairly simple execution
 

To consider :

  • Interpretation can be tricky: need to consider the emissivity, reflection and transmission of the material
  • A temperature differential is generally required. It may be necessary to slightly heat the surface or to change the environment component (indoor / outdoor)
  • Usually requires observation perpendicular to the inspected surface

Liquid penetrant (LPI)

Liquid penetrant (LPI)

The liquid penetrant non-destructive test method is simple to perform, but requires a few successive steps (cleaning, penetrant application, dwell time,...

The liquid penetrant non-destructive test method is simple to perform, but requires a few successive steps (cleaning, penetrant application, dwell time, cleaning, developer application, indication development, interpretation, cleaning). It makes it possible to detect defects emerging on the surface and is more frequently used for non-ferromagnetic materials such as aluminum, titanium or stainless steels. The technique generally used in aeronautics is a fluorescent version which requires interpretation under a UV lamp.

 

Benefits :

  • Simple execution
  • Excellent probability of detection
  • Applicable on a wide variety of geometries
  • Applicable to a wide range of materials

 

To consider :

  • Requires a very clean surface and no surface coating
  • The inspected surface should be fairly smooth, difficult to use this method on rough surface
  • In our workshops, it is possible to use an immersion technique in basins, which could prove to be more productive in certain cases

 

Certifications :

  • AMO # 25-10, Penetrant (FAA, EASA equivalences)
  • Bombardier approved supplier
  • CGSB, PT, levels 2 and 3
  • NAS 410, PT, levels 2 and 3

Magnetic Particle (MPI)

Magnetic Particle (MPI)

The magnetic particle non-destructive testing method is very efficient and simple to perform. It makes it possible to detect defects emerging at the surface...

The magnetic particle non-destructive testing method is very efficient and simple to perform. It makes it possible to detect defects emerging at the surface in ferromagnetic materials. A magnetic yoke is typically used on site to create the magnetic field.The technique used in aeronautics is a fluorescent version which requires interpretation under a UV lamp.

 

Benefits :

  • Fast and effective
  • Excellent probability of detection
  • Applicable on various geometries

 

To consider :

  • Applicable only to ferromagnetic materials
  • Detection of surface defects only
  • Requires a clean surface (no grease)
  • In our workshops, we can perform this method on a magnetic bench, which can be more productive for batches of parts
  • A demagnetizer is used after the inspection to avoid residual magnetism in the part

 

Certifications :

  • AMO # 25-10, Magnetic particle (FAA, EASA equivalences)
  • CGSB, Magnetic particle, level 2
  • NAS 410, Magnetic particle inspection, levels 2 and 3

 

 

Conventional ultrasound

Conventional ultrasound

The ultrasonic non-destructive testing method, with conventional devices, allows the volume of a material to be inspected, not just on the surface. Angled...

The ultrasonic non-destructive testing method, with conventional devices, allows the volume of a material to be inspected, not just on the surface. Angled beam ultrasound is generally used to detect cracks in an inaccessible surface. Ultrasound with a straight probe is often used to take precise measurements of residual thickness. It is an effective technique, which requires a good mastery of the technician in the case of angle beam ultrasound.

 

Benefits :

  • Volumetric inspection, not just on the surface
  • Very precise thickness measurements
  • Easy to perform in the case of thickness measurement
  • Versatile technique

 

To consider :

  • Requires application of couplant to inspection surfaces
  • Sensitive to irregularities at the contact surface
  • Sensitive to defects orientation

 

Certifications :

  • AMO # 25-10, Ultrasound (FAA and EASA equivalents)
  • Bombardier approved supplier
  • CGSB, Ultrasound, level 2
  • NAS 410, Ultrasound, levels 2 and 3

Bond testing

Bond testing

There are various techniques using ultrasound to assess the quality of adhesion of layered composite materials (emission-reception, resonance, Mechanical...

There are various techniques using ultrasound to assess the quality of adhesion of layered composite materials (emission-reception, resonance, Mechanical Impedance Analysis "MIA"). In a simplistic way, the proposed techniques operate by comparing the characteristics of the ultrasound (phase, amplitude and frequency) in the cases of good and bad adhesion. The ultrasound frequencies used for this method are typically on the order of kHz, lower than conventional ultrasound.

 

Benefits :

  • No surface preparation
  • Tasks well established in aeronautics
  • Applicable to several types of layered composite materials as well as "metal to metal"

 

To consider :

  • Limited accuracy
  • Essentially comparative method
  • Interpretation of signals not very intuitive